Rasmussen et al 21 found no association between individual fitness components; aerobic, strength, endurance, and flexibility; but did find an association between the combined fitness score and the development of LBP in a 2-year prospective study. Time spent wearing body armor was a significant predictor for a new episode of LBP in all analyzed battalions except the BSB. This supports previous findings which suggest that wearing body armor for 4 or more hours a day is correlated with higher rates of LBP, cervicalgia, and upper extremity pain in deployed Soldiers.
In a civilian study investigating the effect of body armor on LBP, Burton et al 29 reported an increased risk of LBP in police officers wearing body armor 12 hours a day relative to officers who did not wear it at all. It is likely that wearing body armor for long periods of time places a prolonged compression force on the spine which could lead to injury.
Biomechanical studies have shown that static loading to the spine can result in changes similar to those seen as a result of degeneration over time. Although the reason for the exception in the RSTA group is not immediately clear, it is possible that the analysis was underpowered because of the small subgroup size.
Even after pain has resolved, lower back injuries are known to affect both biomechanical and functional performance. In a study that examined the residual effects of recent LBP in college athletes, Nadler et al 34 found that athletes with resolved LBP had significantly slower shuttle run times than participants in an uninjured group. Seay et al 35 reported differences in pelvis-trunk coordination between pain-free runners with and without a history of LBP such that pain-free participants who had recovered from LBP showed movement patterns similar to runners currently experiencing LBP.
Therefore, even a history of LBP can result in future susceptibility to LBP and can have residual consequences on performance. Repetitive lifting has been previously identified as a risk factor for LBP in industry. This is unusual because even though the BSB had the highest percentage of Soldiers attributing their LBP to lifting, they spent significantly less time lifting than the Infantry Soldiers.
In the current study it was thought that because the BSB had a higher percentage of female Soldiers, this could result in more LBP even with less lifting because female service members have been shown to be at increased risk of LBP. It is possible that even though the BSB was doing less lifting in terms of the amount of time spent in lifting; they may have been lifting heavier weights. Lifting heavy weights, those over National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommendations, have been shown to be a risk factor for injury.
One limitation to this study is that variables were self-reported which could have introduced the possibility for measurement error and recall bias. Soldiers were given the study survey the first week they returned home in order to minimize recall bias as much as possible. In addition, the possibility of measurement error exists because Soldiers may or may not have weighed their loads and likely did not keep exact time sheets on how many hours a day they spend on specific tasks.
They provided their best estimate of the averages for these data. The armored vests start at a standard weight and at some point in time many Soldiers will weigh their equipment. In general deployed Soldiers are aware of the loads they carry for equipment and generally perform the same tasks throughout the deployment and this would increase the accuracy of measurement.
Deployed Soldiers in different types of battalions engage in different levels of physical occupational tasks with the Infantry consistently spending the most time performing physical tasks. Despite their higher frequency of physical tasks, the Infantry did not have a higher incidence of low back pain than the other battalions. This may have been because of their increased fitness level. History of low back pain and time spent wearing body armor were the 2 most consistent predictors of low back pain across battalion types. This study was funded by the U. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
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Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Heather P. Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the author s and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Army or the Department of Defense. The investigators have adhered to the policies for protection of human subjects as prescribed in Army Regulation , and the research was conducted in adherence with the provisions of 32 CFR Part Human subjects participated in these studies after giving their free and informed voluntary consent.
Any citations of commercial organizations and trade names in this report do not constitute an official department of the Army endorsement of approval of the products or services of these organizations. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. ABSTRACT With deployment Soldiers must now wear body armor and additional equipment while performing occupational tasks, representing a large demand that has not been considered when studying military occupations. Open in new tab Download slide.
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Cost of war: excess health care burdens during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq relative to the health care experience pre-war. Search ADS. Ambulatory visits among members of active components, U. Armed Forces, The natural history and risk factors of musculoskeletal conditions resulting in disability among US Army personnel. A physical therapist experience, observation, and practice with an infantry brigade combat team in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Diagnoses and mechanisms of musculoskeletal injuries in an infantry brigade combat team deployed to Afghanistan evaluated by the brigade physical therapist.
Analysis of military occupational specialties and hospitalization: part 1; 25 largest Army enlisted occupations. Google Preview. Physically demanding jobs and occupational injury and disability in the U. Association between back, neck, and upper extremity musculoskeletal pain and the individual body armor. Effect of a month deployment to Iraq on physical fitness and body composition.
Lifting tasks are associated with injuries during the early portion of a deployment to Afghanistan.
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Physical fitness and body composition after a 9-month deployment to Afghanistan. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries for Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. Military occupational classification and structure. Does self-assessed physical capacity predict development of low back pain among health care workers?
A 2 year follow-up study. Predictors of occurrence and severity of first time low back pain episodes: findings from a military inception cohort. Physical training and exercise-related injuries. Surveillance, research and injury prevention in military populations. Risk factors for training-related injuries among men and women in basic combat training. Epidemiology of stress fracture and lower-extremity overuse injury in female recruits.
A longitudinal study of the development of low back pain in an industrial population.
Occupational risk factors for the first-onset and subsequent course of low back trouble. A study of serving police officers. The effect of cyclic compression on the mechanical properties of the inter-vertebral disc: an in vivo study in a rat tail model. A history of low back injury is a risk factor for recurrent back injuries in varsity athletes.
Functional performance deficits in athletes with previous lower extremity injury. Low back pain status affects pelvis-trunk coordination and variability during walking and running. The incidence of low back pain in active duty United States military servicemembers. Employment and physical work activities as predictors of future low back pain.
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Issue Section:. Download all figures. View Metrics. IV muzzleloading rifle MLR replica, similar to guns used as pack howitzer in India in the late s. IV MLR, although it may have been cast using wrought iron and not steel. The cypher is engraved not etched , probably freehand. Catherines and St. Andrews by-the-sea, St. George, St. Catherines, St.