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The Mahabharata begins with the blindness of Dhritarashtra, the older son of Vichitravirya the ruler of Hastinapura , and the father of the Kauravas. Due to a curse placed on him by the sage Kindama, Pandu would die if he had sexual intercourse, and therefore he was not able to have children without risking his own life. After being cursed by Kindama, the king retires to the forest, and his blind brother becomes the new king. The blind Dhritarashtra attacks the statue of Bhima north India, — Her prayers are answered, and she bears three sons — Yudhishtira fathered by Dharma , Bhima fathered by Vayu , and Arjuna fathered by Indra.

Her two sons were the twins Nakula and Sahadeva fathered by the Ashvins. On the other hand, Dhritarashtra and his wife, Gandhari, have sons, the Kauravas, and a daughter. When Pandu and Madri have sexual intercourse, the former dies due to the curse, and the latter commits Sati out of remorse, leaving Kunti and the five young boys to fend for themselves. The Pandavas and their mother return to Hastinapura, and the boys, along with their cousins, were entrusted to a teacher, Kripa.

Later on, they would also be educated by Drona. A bitter rivalry soon developed between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, resulting in the exile of the former, not once, but twice. Pandavas journeying with their mother. After their second exile, the Pandavas prepared for war against their cousins. Emissaries were sent to the Kauravas to demand the return of Indraprastha, the land granted by Dhritarashtra, and developed by the Pandavas, but lost to the Kauravas during a dice game.

The attempt to settle the issue peacefully was a failure, even though Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu and a maternal cousin of the Pandavas, went on the mission himself. As a consequence of this, the Kurukshetra War broke out. Scholars are divided in their opinion as to when this war took place, and even the historicity of this war is a subject of much debate.

In any case, according to the Mahabharata , the Kurukshetra War lasted for 18 days, during which most of the characters in the epic are killed. Arguably the most famous episode in the epic, the Bhagavat Gita , occurs here, just before the fighting begins.

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  • The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva Index;
  • Early Stories in the Indian Epic.

A manuscript illustration 18th c.? Seeing his loved ones on the opposing side, Arjuna wavers in his resolve and intends to quit the field of battle.

The Mahabharata Secret

On the left, Karna with Salya as chariot driver versus Arjuna with Krishna on the right, Cirebon wayang glass painting, Java, Indonesia. At the end of the war, the Pandavas emerge victorious, though the losses on both sides are almost total. On the side of the Pandavas, only eight survivors are named, whilst only four survivors are named on the side of the Kauravas. The war, however, is not the end of the epic.

The Mahabharata goes on to narrate that the Pandavas became the rulers of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and it was to Janmejaya, a great-grandson of Arjuna, that the entire epic was recited by Vaishampayan, a disciple of Vyasa during a snake sacrifice.

Centuries later, Mahabharata still teaches us a lot of life-saving lessons.

The frame story for the epic Mahabharata is its telling on the occasion of a huge "snake-sacrifice" by the king Janamejaya. Top Image: Mahabharata War. Doniger, W. Fitzgerald, J. New World Encyclopedia, I am a university student doing a BA degree in Archaeology. I believe that intellectual engagement by advocates from both ends of the spectrum would serve to Read More.

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The Brahmins, however, could not write the narrative of the bards as it is. It is not then probable that had the writers intended to write a moral tale they would have built on such a material.

  1. Early Stories in the Indian Epic.
  2. Early Stories in the Indian Epic.
  3. Mahabharata.
  4. Book 1: Adi Parva.
  5. Justice Incarnate (Shadows of Justice Book 1)?
  6. Ancient Origins of the Mahabharata?
  8. Hence, the tale existed as such before it became the nucleus of a sermon. This explains why the Mahabharata as we know it today has two sections — the dramatic narrative and the sermonising didactic.

    The Mahabharata: Unforgettable Lessons in An Indian Epic of Family Fighting

    These didactic sections were inserted into the story at different points of time. Its authors tried to match various parts of the narrative with the Brahmanical values prevalent at the time. This constant working and reworking of the text gave rise to several inconsistencies in the narrative. However, Arjuna not only married Ulupi, the beautiful water nymph, but also lived with her for three years.

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    • The Mahabharata, seen in the clear light of reason;
    • The Mahabharata: How an oral narrative of the bards became a text of the Brahmins.
    • Book 1: Adi Parva;

    Arjuna, being an ace archer, won the competition and married Draupadi. Yet, Draupadi eventually ended up as the wife of all five Pandavas. This polyandrous alliance merited three different explanations in later additions to the epic:. These polyandrous unions point to the fact that when the charioteer bards versified the Bharata war, polyandry was the custom as it is even now in parts of the Himalayas. But when the epic was being written, polyandry had lost Brahmanical sanction.

    Hence, several explanations were offered to explain it away. Accordingly, a chain of parricides was constructed in order to justify this ghastly act. Bhishma had tried to kill his preceptor, or guru, Rama Jamadagnya, also known as Parshurama. In order to expiate for his sins, Bhishma then has to be the voluntary victim of an attempted parricide by his grandson, Arjuna. Counseled by his wife, Ulupi, Arjuna decides to pay for his sin by being the victim of an attempted parricide by his son Babhruvahana. In order to censure one parricidal act, the Brahmanical authors of the epic, constructed two others not only to show parricide as a sinful act but also to convey the message of karma — one reaps what one sows.

    Similarly, for the fratricide that lies at the heart of the epic Pandavas and Kauravas were brothers , a sermon on dharma and performance of caste duties was added as a didactic section.

    The Mahabharata on Spotify

    Between BCE and CE, the Bhagavad Gita, a huge didactic text providing justifications for fratricide, among other things was added to the epic. This was a time when the Puranas were being written and Vaishnavism was becoming popular. Similarly, between and CE, didactic sections akin to the Manusmriti were also added.